Friends of the Earth is calling for higher taxes on "gas guzzling" vehicles, cash incentives for motorists to buy greener cars and more help for householders to be energy efficient.
The call for action comes ahead of the Chancellor's House of Commons ' statement on December 2.
The Prime Minister recently described global warming as "the world's greatest environmental challenge".
Friends of the Earth says the Government needs to adopt these measures if it is serious about tackling climate change.
It is calling for four new road tax bands, with £50 between each band, to encourage people to buy less polluting cars.
Vehicle excise duty for the most polluting cars should be raised to £500 per year, within five years, with the cleanest, most fuel efficient cars charged no vehicle excise duty starting now.