Peterborough is the most awkward place in England to get around without a car, according to the Campaign for Better Transport's car dependency report.
It rates towns and cities on public transport provision and facilities for cycling and walking.
Colchester, Milton Keynes, Wigan and Swindon were close rivals for the title, while at the other end London, Manchester and Liverpool topped the list of least car-dependent places.
The report said other cities could learn from London's self-controlled transport policies.
The survey of 29 towns and cities concentrated on four areas: accessibility and planning, bus and train quality and uptake, cycling and walking as alternatives, and driving and car use.
Peterborough was found to have "weaknesses in its public transport infrastructure", leaving residents heavily reliant on cars.
The Campaign for Better Transport's chief executive Stephen Joseph, said: "To be good places to live and work, towns and cities need good transport. The most successful places in our research give people a choice in how you get around.
The survey suggested "local control and devolution" could result in "more integrated and greener transport networks", Joseph said.